Environmental engineers design systems and solutions that prevent or remediate pollution of the air, soil and water. They have a long history of promoting public health through infrastructure and treatment systems that provide potable water, treat wastewater, and manage solid waste. Their work also includes water quality protection, flood prevention, stream restoration, land development and stormwater management and treatment. Environmental engineers design and use models to assess the environmental impact of current and/or proposed actions. Environmental engineers have been in the forefront of promoting sustainable designs and practices for all engineering disciplines to lighten the impacts of the built environment on natural systems. This has led to innovations in natural treatment systems, low impact development, and biologically based renewable energy. Environmental engineers do their work in ways that can assist society and policy makers in providing sound and sustainable environmental management.
Geotechnical engineering is the branch of Civil Engineering concerned with engineering behavior of earth materials (soil, rocks, and water). Geotechnical Engineering uses the principles of soil mechanics and rock mechanics to investigate subsurface conditions and materials, determine the relevant physical/mechanical and chemical properties of these materials, evaluate stability of natural slopes and man-made soil deposits, assess risks posed by site conditions, design earthworks and structure foundations, and monitor site conditions as well as earthwork and foundation construction.
Constructed structures are subjected to forces caused by the natural environment (e.g snow, wind, and earthquakes) and by human activities (e.g. traffic, building occupancy). Structures (e.g. buildings, bridges, pipelines, roads, dams, canals) must be designed and constructed to withstand these forces. Structural engineers design new structures or evaluate and improve the load resistance capabilities of existing structures. In order to accomplish this the structural engineer must be knowledgeable about the behavior of deformable bodies, about the sources, magnitudes and probability of occurrence of applied loads, about material properties, design philosophies and governmental design codes, and about computer programming and usage.
The transportation system is a basic component of any area's physical, economic, and social structure. Not only does the design and performance of the transportation system provide opportunities for mobility; but over the long term, it influences patterns of growth and the level of economic activity through the accessibility it provides the land. The field of Transportation Engineering focuses on the planning, design, construction, and management of transportation systems. These systems consist of the facilities, vehicles, control mechanisms, and the policies that combine to permit the efficient conveyance of people and goods. Designs highway systems (layout, routing), pavement material, airport runways, and rapid transit projects. Also involved in computer control of traffic signals.